Most guitar players start out with a setup that goes something like this:
You have a guitar, a cable, a small (maybe mid-sized) combo amp and perhaps a pedal or two.
But what you'll quickly realize is that the pros (and most who have been playing for an extended period of time) don't set their gear up that way.
In fact, their rigs look quite different.
Take Herman Li's amp and speaker cabs, for example:
Herman Li's guitar rig. | Image via Guitar.com
This looks nothing like a guitar rig most of us would own. Fair?
Further, Li has a number of rack mounted units:
Herman Li's pedalboard and rack setup. | Image via Guitar.com
We don't see a combo amp running a simple pedal line. In fact, Li's setup looks incredibly complex. Enough so that many might be turned off from even attempting to set up a similar rig.
There's also the issue of expense.
Li's rig is, undoubtedly, burdened by a heavy price tag.
But what if I said you can setup a guitar rack system that is structured similarly? Moreover, what if I told you that it would be reasonably affordable?
If we can take the mystique and the complexity out of these systems, boiling them down to a few basic components, than it's easy to see how we can setup our own guitar rack systems at an affordable price and benefit from their versatility.
The Difference between Combo Amps and Standalone Power or Preamps
To understand Li's rig, and rack systems in general, it helps to know what a guitar amp actually is.
Let's say you buy a combo amp, like the following:
This "amp" is actually three different functioning pieces:
- Power Amp
While these three functions get throw into the term "guitar amp" the only actual amplification is the power amp segment.
The job of the preamp and the speaker actually have little to do with what is technically amplification. Thus, the act of throwing all three of those roles into one amplifier, isn't always the most optimal way to setup your guitar rig.
In Li's rig, he has three different components, each handling only one of these roles.
- Mesa Boogie Power Amp
- Rocktron Prophesy Effects Processor (doubling as a preamp)
- Peavey Speaker Cabs
Which setup is better?
Now, I should be clear:
There is nothing wrong with going the combo amp route. Because, clearly, it has some major advantages in certain situations. It's cheaper, easily transported and a lot quicker to setup and take down.
Moreover, many of the most popular guitar amps of our day are combo amplifiers.
Combo amps do have limitations and are not the method that most professionals choose to use.
In many cases, guitar players will at least separate the power amp/preamp from their speaker cab via what's called an "amp head," pictured below:
Marshall JVM series amp head (preamp/power amp combo - no speaker)
This can be, and often is, part of a guitar rack system as it can fit into most cases.
The real advantage is that amp heads give you a lot more flexibility and customization options with your rig. You can choose one brand for a speaker cab, another for a preamp/power amp.
The pros often take advantage of this because it allows them to leave their amp heads in one spot, while speaker cabs can be moved somewhere else entirely.
So, the question of which setup is better is situational.
What I'll do here is show you your options and help you setup a guitar rack system that isn't overly complex, is reasonably affordable and works in your situation.
Guitar Rack System Signal Processing Options
Let's just take a minute to review your guitar rig options.
The first, and more obvious choice that we looked at earlier, is the combo amp plus a few effects pedals setup.
It's the "de facto" choice for most beginner guitar players:
Option #1: Amateur Hour
In this scenario, the power amp, preamp and speaker are all combined in the combo amplifier, while some effects may or may not be added for basic signal processing between the guitar and amp.
Option #2: Separating the Preamp/Power Amp and Speaker
At this point we still don't necessarily have a rack mount system, though we've taken the step of separating our preamp/power amp and speaker cab, giving us some flexibility with both pieces.
Option #3: Separating the Preamp, Power Amp and Speaker Cab
Now it should start to make sense why players need a case to hold all of this stuff. We now have a power amp, preamp, speaker cab and effects pedals all separated into their own unit.
Speaking of pedals, we can still take our guitar rack system one step further by adding an effects processor.
Option #4: Adding Rack Effects for Guitar
Now we have a digital rack mount effects processor, which is how most professionals deal with basic effects.
You'll notice that many of them will run just a few pedals (wah is a good example) from the floor, while the rest of their effects are housed in a case.
How do they control rack effects from somewhere else?
If you go back to our Herman Li rig, you'll notice a large floorboard with numerous little buttons.
This is called a MIDI controller, which allows you to control a unit like the TC Electronic G Major, or any other multi-effects rack processor, from the floor.
A few examples of good MIDI controllers include:
These units allow you to program and engage whatever rack effects you're using, which is why you almost always see a MIDI floorboard on professional guitar rigs.
It's just a much easier and more streamlined setup.
Adding the MIDI controller expands are guitar rack system to the following:
What you see here is the core of any guitar rack setup, with the preamp and power amp often combined into the amp head we showed you earlier.
It's how almost every professional guitar player sets things up.
While there are plenty of other rack mount units to discuss, let's review the core of our setup so far:
- Separate power and preamp or power/preamp combo
- Speaker cab
- Rack effects processor
- MIDI foot controller for effects processor
Getting a Guitar Rack Case that will Hold your Gear
Getting a case to hold all of this stuff is what's often the most confusing aspect of setting up a guitar rack system and knowing what to buy.
Though again, it's surprisingly simple once you know what to look for.
Rack cases will have either open slots or drawers where you can place pedals and/or rack units. The number of slots and drawers can vary, though most will have between five and 12 slots, with one or two drawers.
This rack case from Seismic Audio has 12 spaces for rack units and one drawer that locks.
Assume that an amp head will take up two or three spots (it's higher than most rack units) leaving you with ten for other units and the drawer which can hold pedals or simply function as a junk drawer.
How do I install rack units in the case?
If you look closely at a front shot of the case, you can see lines of holes on either side:
Now, look closely at the front of the TC Electronic G Major:
These holes will correspond to the ones in our case, allowing us to attach the rack unit to the case, rather easily.
Once everything is in, the result will look something like this:
The number of rack units you want to run will determine what kind of case you buy.
The number of slots in each case will vary, while the vertical size of many rack units will also be subject to change. However, getting a case that holds between eight and 12 rack units is fairly standard.
Other variables include the drawers I mentioned, which can be added and removed as needed, as well as the wheels feature.
It should be evident by now that this gives you a massive amount of flexibility with how you design your rig. Particularly for musicians who perform live on a regular basis, this setup is extremely useful and versatile.
Now that we've seen how to setup a guitar rack system, let's look at a few rig arrangement ideas and templates that might work for you.
Guitar Rack System Idea #1: The Modern Hard Rocker
In this rig, we have a power amp, preamp (with built-in effects) and the noise suppressor, giving you all the basics with room in an 8-rack case for additional units.
It's a great build for the minimalist hard rocker who wants to have effects and preamp functionality consolidated, along with the extensive control offered by the MIDI foot controller.
Here's a list of everything in the diagram:
- Rocktron 100LTD Stereo Power Amp
- DigiTech GSP1101 Preamp
- Rocktron Hush Noise Reduction
- Voodoo Lab Ground Control MIDI Board
- Marshall Slanted Speaker Cab
Guitar Rack System Idea #2: The Lead Electric Player with Pedals
Note that the Boss pedal pictured in the top right side of the diagram is simply meant to signify the likelihood of a pedalboard and not specifically the Boss Harmonist.
Since lead guitar players often use a lot of effects, we have a digital effects processor running into a feedback controller. All of this is pushed by an Orange Amplifiers head that runs into a 4x12 Fender speaker cab.
A MIDI foot controller (for the effects processor) and noise reduction system are added to round things out.
- Orange Amplifiers Crush Pro CR120H
- TC Electronic G-Major Effects Processor
- Behringer FCB1010 MIDI Foot Controller
- Fender Mustang Speaker Cab
- Siesmic Audio 12 Space Rack Case
- Behringer Feedback Destroyer
- Rocktron Hush Super C
Guitar Rack System Idea #3: The Metal Head Rack
In the "metal head" version I swap out the Orange amp head and Fender cab, replacing them with a Randall RD100H and a Marshall slanted cab.
- Randall RD100H Amp Head
- Rolls MP128 MIDI Buddy Foot Controller
- Marshall Speaker Cab
- Siesmic Audio 12 Space Rack Case
- Rocktron Hush Super C
Guitar Rack System Idea #4: The Classic Rocker
For the classic rocker, the amp head is a Marshall DSL100 paired with the Marshall slanted cab.
I've added a cheaper effects processor with a smaller MIDI controller to make room for a few more stompboxes. The Rocktron Hush provides some noise control, as per usual.
- Marshall DSL100H Amp Head
- Marshall Speaker Cab
- TC Electronic M350 Effects Processor
- Eight Rack Space Case
- Rocktron MIDI Exchange Foot Controller
Now, keep in mind:
All of these are just examples that I came up with to give you an idea of how you might piece together a guitar rack system that fits your specific needs.
Part of the beauty involved with putting this kind of system together is that it's uniquely your own and completely fluid. In other words, there's no right or wrong way to do it.
There are plenty of instances where "rules" can be broken.
Tool's Adam Jones has been known to use a bass cab with his rig.
It's easy to see that once you get this many pieces into a guitar rack system there's a lot of experimenting and mixing and matching that can occur.
To give you a few more ideas about how these systems are put together, I'll walk you through some real life examples.
Some More Real Life Examples
Flickr Commons Image via Theleom
What I always find helpful when trying to setup anything, guitar gear especially, is to look at what other people are doing, take a few notes and then go do something similar.
With guitar rack systems, I find that an especially helpful tactic.
Part of the reason I don't like doing it from scratch is because there is an infinite amount of ways it can be done.
My personal preference is to look at a template, take a few ideas I like, then go make my own way, which is what we'll do with these examples.
Let's start with a guitarist you probably recognize.
Slash's guitar rack system
A shot of Slash's signal Marshall amp heads. | Image via Moshcam
In Moshcam's rundown of Slash's (Saul Hudson) rig with Ace (Slash's guitar tech), we see a fairly simple setup consisting of the two Marshall JCM heads.
One is the Slash Signature, while the other is a traditional JCM800.
The two that sit to the right of Ace in the photo are backups to the originals.
Otherwise, Slash's rack system is just a pedalboard that sits atop the amplifiers where all the pedals are controlled backstage by Ace (wah pedal excluded).
A shot of Slash's pedalboard. | Image via Moshcam
For all his success, Slash has a remarkably simple setup. One thing that isn't showcased in the Moshcam video is a remote wah pedal processor, which allows Slash to use multiple wahs at different points on stage.
Otherwise, it's a basic Marshall amp outfit.
Joe Garvey of Hinder
Joe Garvey, Hinder's lead guitar player, relies heavily on a rack guitar system that's similarly structured to some of the examples we've provided.
First, his pedalboard is almost entirely controlled by a Voodoo Lab MIDI foot controller:
The Voodoo Lab MIDI foot controller on Joe Garvey's pedalboard. | Image via Premier Guitar
This floorboard is the control point for an Avid Eleven Rack effects processor, which is the heart of Garvey's tone and signal processing.
There are two of them in this picture (the two orange boxes):
Avid Eleven effects processor which is controller by the Voodoo Lab Ground Control. | Image via Premier Guitar
All of Garvey's amp models and effects come from the Eleven Rack (the second one is a backup), which then runs directly into the speaker cabinets and monitors.
Garvey avoids the typical amp head setup in favor of relying entirely on has Eleven Rack which does all the preamp work, in addition to handling effects processing.
Dan Donegan of Disturbed
Disturbed's guitar player, Dan Donegan, runs his signal through a setup that looks complicated, though is actually quite close to the diagrams I showed you earlier.
First, his signal goes through Randall preamps and a DigiTech effects processor, which you can see in the picture below:
A look at Dan Donegan's Randall preamps and DigiTech effects processor. | Image via Premier Guitar
The signal is then powered by Randall RT2 tube power amps.
Donegan's Randall power amps. | Image via Premier Guitar
Finally, Donegan's signal lands at this speaker cab (not sure about the brand), which has four microphones total (one for each speaker) and is enclosed in a box before it's sent out to the mains at Disturbed's concerts.
Donegan's speaker cab and microphones. | Image via Premier Guitar
A few pedals and the DigiTech effects processor are all controlled through a Voodoo Lab MIDI foot controller, which is the same model we saw being used in Garvey's rig.
Donegan's MIDI controller on his pedalboard. | Image via Premier Guitar
- Voodoo Lab Ground Control
- DigiTech Whammy Pedal
- Randall RT2 Power Amps
- DigiTech GSP1101 Effects Processor
- Randall RM4 Preamps
What about wireless units?
In a lot of these rigs, you might notice wireless receivers, since the pros almost never go without them.
Usually that's not a necessary component for a small time rig, whether you're running everything into a rack case or not.
While you can get some cheaper wireless receivers, my advice would be to run a cable and put your money into some other aspect of your guitar rack system. Wireless just doesn't help you much if you're not performing in a larger capacity.
The Line 6 rack-mountable wireless receiver.
If you do decide to add a wireless receiver to your rig, they'll usually take up one or two rack spots, similar to the effects processors and noise gates.
How tricky is the wiring for all this stuff?
When you look at the pro rigs, you'll often see a lot of wires and what looks like a complicated mess.
The first thing to keep in mind is that this sort of thing always looks messier and more complex than it actually is. If you watch the Premier Guitar Rig Rundown videos, you'll notice that the "neatness" of a rig will often depend on the personality of the guitar tech.
So, don't assume that just because the wiring looks a bit chaotic that you can't do it yourself.
It's often quite simple.
Remember, your signal is linear, which means it runs in a straight line from beginning to end.
Linear signal processing in a guitar rack system
This means the signal is relatively easy to track.
Just like a conventional pedalboard, everything will still have one input and one output.
Linear i/o (cable routing) in a guitar rack system. | View larger image
This is even easier to see in the TC Electronic G Major setup manual, which gives a simple reference graphic that applies regardless of which effects processor we might be using:
Guitar rack system setup example. | Image via TC Electronic
If you look at it this way, wiring and cables are fairly straightforward.
Make sure you separate all your wires into two categories:
- Electrical Currents
- Signal Processing
Electrical wiring would include pedal power (9V cables) and any kind of adapter or power plug that needs to be accounted for.
These should all be kept separate from signal processing cables, which would include MIDI cabling, instrument cables and patch cables between pedals or rack units.
Keeping them distinct makes everything much easier to manage.
What I like to do is wire all the necessary instrument cables first, then come back in and do all the electric wiring, while taping down as much as possible to cut back on the mess.
What else can be mounted in a rack system?
For simplicity's sake, I've focused primarily on the core elements of a guitar rack system. However, you can migrate anything that has to do with signal processing to a case.
For example, you can get any of the following components in a rack form:
- Wah controller
- Channel switching
At this point, it comes down to an issue of how much money you want to spend and how you want your rig to function.
Having a tuner and equalizer in a pedal form is cheaper, but there is a lot more versatility and flexibility to be had if you can migrate it all to a rack case.
I'd consider these items to be luxury inclusions, or fun additions for a later date.
If you have a rack system template to share, drop it in the comments section below.
This topic, while frustratingly vague, can often be made really simple by seeing what kind of rack systems other guitar players have been able to successfully build and set up.
Share what you know so everyone else can benefit.
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- Guitar.com/Rigs. A well-stocked archive of professional guitar player rigs that provide in-depth graphics and details that cover plenty of rack systems.
- Reverb. One of the largest music gear retailers also happens to be a great place to find used and boutique gear, like the Marshall 9100 power amp.
- The Eleven Rack quick setup guide. Even if you don't buy this particular preamp, the setup guide provides a quick and convenient look into how to include an effects processor in a guitar rack system.
- Premier Guitar's Rig Rundown's. The rig rundown series from Premier Guitar offers some of the absolute best insight into guitar rack systems and professional rigs. This is where I got most of my examples.